The Cannabis Act, also known as Bill C45, will come into effect across Canada on October 17. The Act allows the use of recreational cannabis under a legal framework that controls the production, distribution, sale and possession of cannabis in the country subject to provincial or territorial restrictions.
Under the federal Act, minimum conditions for possession of marijuana include a minimum age of 18 years old, a maximum of 30 grams at any one time, growing up to four cannabis plants per residence for personal use, purchase of cannabis and cannabis oil from a provincially-licensed retailer and production of cannabis products at home such as food and drinks. The commercial sale of edible products and concentrates from cannabis will be made legal about one year after the implementation of the Act.
The federal legal framework allows each province and territory to further restrict the use of cannabis and to develop, implement, maintain and enforce systems to oversee the distribution and sale of cannabis. For example, provinces and territories can raise the minimum wage from 18 years old (but not lower it), lower the personal possession limit, create additional rules for growing cannabis at home (a maximum lower than four plants) and restrict areas where cannabis can be consumed.
Below is a comparison table between the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario on rules on cannabis use. Maximum possession amount for these provinces based on dried cannabis is 30 grams.
|Province||Minimum age||Distribution/purchase||Growing plants at home per household||Where consumption is not allowed|
|BC||19||Liquor Distribution Branch is wholesale distributor; Liquor and Cannabis Regulation Branch regulates licensing of and monitors non-medical cannabis retailers||Maximum of four||Where tobacco smoking and vaping are prohibited including school properties, playgrounds, sports fields, skate parks and other places where children commonly gather; includes vehicles|
|Alberta||18||Licensed retail locations or online at albertacannabis.org||Maximum of four||Public places as determined by local government and municipalities|
|Manitoba||19||Delta 9 Cannabis, Canopy Growth Corp.; National Access Cannabis, Tokyo Smoke and a consortium led by Avana Canada of Ontario||Prohibited (also in Quebec and Nunavut)||Illegal in public places like parks, school grounds, streets and sidewalks, health care facilities|
|Saskatchewan||19||Online and retails stores regulated by the Saskatchewan Liquor and Gaming Authority||Maximum of four||Prohibited in all public places|
|Ontario||19||Online through the Ontario Cannabis Store https://lcbocannabisupdates.com||Maximum of four||Illegal in the workplace, schools, playgrounds and spaces where children commonly gather, hospitals and health care facilities, publicly owned spaces|